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Torpedo Attack Tactics of the Luftwaffe - The Golden Comb
The Golden comb tactic used to attack Allied freighters was first used on 13 September 1942 against the Allied convoy PQ 18.
A massed formation of 42 He 111 each carrying two torpedoes and flying in line abreast formation dropped them simultaneously.
The bombers had to fly low and slow for the proper functioning of the torpedoes and that made them vulnerable.
Nevertheless, the attack against the convoy of 35 merchants could be considered highly successful: 8 ships were sunk during the attack.
12 He 111 were lost.
The usual defensive tactic of the ships to turn in the direction of the attack failed this time, but not in succeeding strikes.
Therefore, the Germans started to attack the ships from at least two directions (perpendicular to the main attack) to improve the chances of hits.

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